Exercise: Is it really less important than diet for weight loss?

exercise, diet, and weight lossI have been hearing for some time now that when it comes to weight loss, exercise is not king. Diet is paramount. I mean, the NY Times said it, so it must be true.1 To be fair, they cited many reputable studies in their report that seem to indicate exercise only goes so far in weight management. The amount you can burn in a single exercise session is easily erased by something as innocent as a second helping of dinner or a favorite sweet treat. Also for many, hunger increases after exercise and leads to overconsumption, thereby erasing or even worsening the calorie deficit they were striving for. I get it. I can see how exercise may not be the key piece in the giant puzzle of weight loss.

That being said, I have always had a nagging suspicion that exercise is more important than we think. We already know it helps for a host of issues other than weight loss, including mood/depression, cardiovascular health/blood pressure, blood glucose regulation, hormone balance, improved immune function, etc. People who exercise, on the whole, are healthier. Period. But I still had this feeling that given the right duration and intensity level, exercise has a key role in weight management.

Then this study popped up online2, giving us new insight into what might be going on with our metabolism when we exercise.

Researchers from Karolinska Institute in Sweden found mechanisms in mice by which exercise counteracted fat storage and decreased inflammation. A compound called kynurenic acid, induced via exercise, was the key.

To understand the big picture, backtrack with me real quick. Preceding this study, in 2014, this same group originally published that kynurenic acid in the brain, produced via exercise, supported improved brain function. Exercise produces a sound mind, they declared.

Building on that, they conducted this recent study where they introduced kynurenic acid orally in mice with the goal to reach all the tissues, not just the brain. These mice, while eating a high-fat diet that promoted obesity and elevated blood glucose, stopped gaining weight and in turn converted more of their white fat to brown fat, which is the type that is more metabolically active. They also had improved blood glucose control despite no change in diet.

The theory is that the kynurenic acid in the fat cells promoted this conversion from white to brown fat, while kynurenic acid in the immune cells enhanced anti-inflammatory properties.

These two factors, the increase in metabolically active fat and decreased inflammation, both assist the body’s ability to burn fat as energy and prevent excessive fat storage.

Sounds promising! Lace up those shoes! But then this begs the question, what type of exercise should we be doing to get this benefit?!? What is the magic formula? Running? Light walking? Pilates? HIIT cardio? Cross Fit? Yoga?

Unfortunately, this study does not lay that out as the kynurenic acid was administered orally rather than induced directly via exercise. A little digging, however, and another paper provided exactly that information: endurance exercise.3

Ah, I knew it! I had a suspicion that the time and intensity of exercise mattered. Quick and dirty workouts have their place, but nothing takes the place of a good ol’ get-your-heart-rate-up-for-a sustained-period-of-time-type workout.

What this study showed was that subjects undergoing sustained cardio, in these cases an hour or longer, produced high levels of kynurenic acid in their muscle tissue within an hour after exercise. Subjects doing exercise that involved shorter bursts of intense energy did not see these benefits.

So there you go. Cardio for the win, right? Well yes, mostly I suppose. I think the key takeaway is to remember cardio is important and has an important role in weight management, but don’t let that cause you to overlook the roles of muscle conditioning, toning and even plyometric-type activities to overall strength and health. Varying up your routine to prevent injury and strengthen your body overall is so important as well!

If you are now thinking about what kind of exercise is safe for you, let me put out a quick disclaimer here. I am no exercise physiologist. I work with food to help people lose weight, however, exercise is such a key piece of that puzzle. Also, I have been an avid exerciser since my early 20’s so I tend to talk about it frequently with my clients. That being said, if you need specific advice as to what is safe and appropriate for you to be doing, please consult with your doctor, a physical therapist, or even a certified trainer to develop a plan. My role is to educate that exercise is important. For tailored guidance, particularly if you have injuries or other limitation, see a professional!*

If you feel ok starting up something on your own, let me put out a quick plug for one of my favorite online workout websites, Fitness Blender.com. For approachable, achievable and FUN workouts, this site is the best. Run by a local Seattle couple, they have FREE online workouts for any fitness level and any length of time you happen to have available. I’ll be honest. We don’t always have time for sustained cardio, do we? These workouts can easily fit in your day, whether you have 15 minutes to spare or an hour.

The truth is, though, if you are really serious about shedding that weight for good, regular exercise needs to be a part of your routine.
So yes, do lace up those shoes and get moving because the evidence is clear: exercise, and specifically cardio, supports fat reduction. Of course, you have to watch your diet, too. =)

1. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180206140630.htm
2. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/16/upshot/to-lose-weight-eating-less-is-far-more-important-than-exercising-more.html
3. https://www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpcell.00053.2016

*Always check with your doctor before starting any new type of exercise program. Should you choose to try something new, always start slow and always be aware of proper form. If in doubt, consult a trainer or teacher to master the fundamentals before increasing intensity. Basically, start low and slow to avoid injury!

Bone Health: It’s Not All About Calcium

bone healthSeems every time we read about supporting healthy bones we talk about Calcium. “Drink milk for strong bones!” Who hasn’t heard that before? Who hasn’t seen a concerned look from a doctor or pediatrician when you say you or your kid isn’t eating many dairy products? And who hasn’t in some time in their life taken a calcium supplement in hopes of preventing bone loss and osteoporosis?

Thing is, we love our bones. They are pretty cool. They protect our organs, provide structure to our body frame, help us move, and even perform many metabolic functions such as store minerals, help balance the pH in our body, and even store fat in the yellow bone marrow, among other jobs. Yes, bones ones are pretty darn cool. Unfortunately how to protect them, beyond more and more calcium, is not widely publicized. I’m not sure why that is.

You see, we need far more than just calcium to achieve optimal bone health. In 2007 researchers found no correlation between increased calcium consumption and decrease in risk for hip fracture (1). Another study in 2014 showed that increasing milk intake during teenage years did not result in lower hip facture rates as adults (1). These are just a few of the studies showing such correlations. Clearly something is missing. Let’s talk through some of the other, less popular nutrients that are critical for calcium utilization and bone formation.

Vitamin D
Ok, Vitamin D is pretty popular, especially here in Washington State where we just don’t get adequate sunlight to synthesize enough of it. A study conducted in Great Britain, which is at a similar latitude to Washington, showed that Vitamin D deficiency amongst the general population during the Winter and Spring months was especially high (3). There is real cause for concern that some of us are deficient in this important nutrient. Its role is to help Calcium get absorbed from the bloodstream and therefore helps mineralize the bones. That seems pretty important. In other words, you can take loads of Calcium all day long, but without Vitamin D, it might not get where it’s needed.

If you are indeed Vitamin D deficient, what is the best way to correct it? Well, limited sun exposure during the warm months is one way. Supplementation all year, especially during the colder months, is naturally another way. Dosage? Unfortunately theories on dosing run all over the map, with standard intakes recommended at 400IU per day for ages 12 months and under and 600IU/day for kids and adults, up to mega high doses of 50,000IU and higher depending on the situation. Best course of action is to talk with your medical provider about what is appropriate for you.

Vitamin K
This is one under-appreciated nutrient. Most of us may think of it in relation to blood clotting, but it’s also a critical friend to calcium. Vitamin K helps create one of the most abundant proteins in the bone, Osteocalcin. Osteocalcin supports the bone matrix by binding calcium and promoting mineralization. Our bones would be at risk for weakness without it.

There are two forms of Vitamin K, K1 and K2. Vitamin K1 is found in green vegetables and supports healthy blood clotting. Vitamin K2, which is made by bacteria lining the GI tract (partly by converting some K1 into K2), is the form that supports bone health. How do we get enough? Leafy greens and green vegetables, as mentioned above, are great sources of K1. Some of that K1 will get converted to K2 which is the form we want for bone health. Another option is to supplement with K2 which will give a direct dose of the stuff our bones need. If you feel your health is pretty good, especially in terms of digestion and gastrointestinal health, some Vit K food sources daily may be enough. If you question your ability to properly absorb and convert Vit K to its active bone-health form, you may want to consider supplementation.

Magnesium
About 50% of our magnesium is stored in the bones, so this mineral has to be important. Several studies have shown that bone density increases as magnesium intake increases. This is one mineral not to ignore as it also supports a host of other functions in the body. One problem noted in recent years is that our food supply is becoming increasingly deficient in this vital nutrient. As soil supplies become depleted, so also does our food. Therefore it’s becoming harder and harder to know if we are getting enough from sources that are typically high in magnesium. These foods include nuts, beans, whole grains, and green leafy vegetables. The RDA for magnesium in women and men is 310mg per day and 400mg per day, respectively. Thankfully supplement options are abundant if you feel you need a little additional support. One word of advice? Unless you suffer from constipation and need some laxative help, try avoiding Mg+ Oxide and go for another form such as Mg+ Citrate, Mg+ Malate or Mg+ Glycinate which tend to be more readily absorbed.

Calcium
Last but not least, let’s talk about calcium’s role. It is critically important, as much as I have underplayed it to highlight the role of calcium’s best friends. But truly it is one of the most important players in bone strength. There is roughly 1 kg of Calcium in our bodies and 99% of that resides in the bones. It makes up a mineral complex that provides strength and stability to our entire skeleton. When they say calcium builds strong bones, they aren’t kidding. But as we have talked about throughout this entire article, calcium can’t get into the bones and do its job without its main helpers. This complex interplay between a vast array of nutrients, most of which we talked about here, is what keeps us strong and functioning at our full capacity.

The RDA for adults is roughly 1,000mg per day. BUT, this is dependent on ensuring adequate intake of all the nutrients needed for bone health. Otherwise, as mentioned previously, those 1,000 mg of calcium are not going to be well absorbed. And if they don’t get absorbed? Well, that is when calcium starts roaming for other places to live, like in your blood vessels, in soft tissues, in the kidneys, and excreted in the bowels, sometimes causing constipation.

To get adequate calcium, food sources are your best bet. Obviously dairy is the most touted, but for those of us who are dairy intolerant and dairy sensitive, there are other sources as well. These include beans, salmon, sardines, figs, leafy greens, almonds, chia seeds, tofu, and dairy free products that are fortified with calcium.

Oh wait, one more: Exercise!
How could we adequately talk about bone health without mentioning exercise? You see, the cool things about bones is that they are a living tissue and do respond to external stimuli, like exercise. The more force that is placed upon the bones the more they respond by becoming stronger. This is why weight-bearing exercise is the best form of exercise to give those bones a boost.

Types of weight-bearing exercise? Well, anything that causes impact on the bones counts. Brisk walking, hiking, jumping, dancing, cardio gym classes, stair climbing, team sports, and good ol’ weight training. If you don’t need to do exercise for your weight, at least do it for your bones!

Hopefully you now have a better understanding of the complete package when it comes to bone health. It’s not all about calcium, although its role is certainly vital. I think the real take home message is that a well-balanced, varied diet is key. These nutrients we discussed today, in addition to a host of others, play with each other in very intricate and complex ways to support this thing we call the human body. Rarely does isolating one nutrient alone solve the problem. All these nutrients depend on each other, like friends, to get important jobs done. As you can see it is a complex job, so give your body the tools it needs by eating a varied diet and incorporating daily exercise.

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065599?dopt=Citation 
  2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24247817 
  3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344510

If you have specific concerns about your health, especially pertaining to optimal bone health, don’t hesitate to reach out. It’s never too late to start doing what’s right for your main support system, your bones!

Image courtesy of franky242 / FreeDigitalPhotos.net